Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to the gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resilience and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture or poor body mechanics.
Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity, making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”. Scoliosis can affect either the mid or lower back. Scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age.
Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback. The thoracic portion of the spine normally has a C-shaped curve, but excessive forward curve in the spine leads to kyphosis. Kyphosis most commonly affects the thoracic spine, but can involve the cervical and lumbar portions too.
Facet joints, also called zygapophyseal joints, are synovial joints located at the back of your spine, connecting the vertebrae together. Normally the facet joints are lined by a cartilage and a membrane of synovium. There are two joints between each pair of vertebrae located on either side of the spine. The facet joints provide stability for the spine.
Sciatica is a painful condition caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerve. Sciatica can be acute (short term), lasting for a few weeks or chronic (long term), persisting for more than 3 months. It is important to understand that in most cases, sciatica will resolve itself within a few weeks or months and rarely causes permanent nerve damage.
The spine is made up of a column of small bones called vertebrae that surround and protect the spinal cord and nerves that branch out from the spinal cord. Each bone or vertebra is separated from the other by a spongy tissue called an intervertebral disc, which acts as a cushion and prevents the bones from rubbing against each other during movement.
Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the vertebra that may progress into spondylolisthesis, a condition where the vertebra gets displaced from the spinal column. Spondylolysis is the cause of frequent low back pain in children. It is more common among children and teenagers who participate actively in sports such as football, weightlifting, and gymnastics.
Spinal instability refers to the condition of failure of the spinal column to maintain its normal structure. Normally, the spine functions to protect and provide support to the body and its internal organs. An unstable spine is incapable of holding various spinal structures such as spinal muscles, ligaments, bones, and discs in place.
Spondylodiscitis is an infection of the intervertebral discs (between the vertebrae) along with the vertebrae (one of many small bones forming the spine). The condition is a primary infection of one or more intervertebral discs (discitis) with secondary infection of one or more vertebrae (spondylitis).
The spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of a series of irregularly-shaped bones appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves, when viewed from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front.
Spondylolisthesis is the displacement of the vertebral disc from the spinal column. Outward (forward) displacement is termed as anterolisthesis and inward (backward) displacement is termed as retrolisthesis. This condition is often preceded by spondylolysis, a degenerative condition of the vertebra.
Spine trauma is defined as an injury or damage to any region of the spine. The spine extends from the neck to the lower back and consists of the vertebral bones which surround and protect the spinal cord. Damage to the spinal cord or spinal nerves can cause changes in sensation, strength, and other body functions.
The neck is the most flexible part of the spine and supports the weight of the head. The unique anatomical structure of the cervical vertebrae allows the free movement of the head. The neck is also composed of muscles and ligaments. Any excessive stress on the ligaments and muscles may injure or damage them.
Injuries at the workplace are very common and may be debilitating. Global statistics report that around 260 million non-fatal injuries occur every year around the world of which 350,000 cases may suffer death. Workplace injuries often occur because of high-risk jobs, lack of or scarcity in safety devices, lack of training, and higher numbers of manual workers.
Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures. Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed. The bone collapses when too much pressure is placed on the vertebrae, resulting in pain, limited mobility, loss of height and spinal deformity.
Scheuermann’s kyphosis is a deformity of the spine that develops during growth. It can be considered as increased kyphosis. Kyphosis is the C-shaped curving of the spine and is also known as hunchback. This deformity occurs in the junction between the thoracic region and lumbar sections of the spine or in the chest region.
Low back pain is often a common symptom of many disease conditions and the back pain may range from simple or dull pain to sudden and sharp pain. If the pain persists for a few days, it is acute pain whereas if it continues for more than 3 months, it is considered as chronic pain.
Whiplash is a soft tissue injury to the neck, usually caused by a sudden forceful jerk commonly occurring because of an automobile accident, sports injuries or an accidental fall. Headache may develop immediately or after a short period of time after the injury. Sometimes, whiplash may also be referred to as neck strain, neck sprain or hyperextension injury.
Pseudarthrosis is an unhealed broken bone, also known as nonunion. Usually, damaged or broken bones heal over time by forming new bone tissue connecting the damaged pieces of the bone. However, if the damaged bone fails to heal then it is called ‘nonunion’ or ‘pseudarthrosis’.
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition that commonly affects the spine. It is characterized by calcification (bony hardening) of ligaments, tendons and joint capsule insertions. Usually, the upper portion of the back (thoracic spine) is affected, but it may also involve the neck (cervical spine) and lower back (lumbar spine).
Discitis, also called discitis, is inflammation between the spaces of the intervertebral discs in the spine. Intervertebral discs are located between the vertebrae and spaces between them are called intervertebral disc spaces. Swelling in these spaces puts pressure on the discs and results in pain.
Mid-back pain is also called as thoracic pain or upper back pain. It occurs at the back of the chest and is much less common than lower back pain. It may occur due to poor posture, muscle strain, improper lifting and bending, physical inactivity, sports injury, a trauma in a car accident, cancer, or an autoimmune disease.
Radiculopathy is a condition where a nerve root in the spine is compressed, producing pain or weakness across the whole length of the nerve. It is sometimes referred to as a pinched nerve or sciatica. It occurs most commonly, but is not limited, to the lower back and neck.
Back pain is uncommon in children and is usually associated with a serious underlying condition or an injury. Often, the cause of back pain is non-specific and is thought to be due to musculoskeletal strain, poor posture, heavy school bags that are not worn correctly or underlying mood problems.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density resulting in brittle, fragile bones that are more susceptible to fractures. The condition most commonly affects elderly women. Osteoporosis-related fractures are more common at the vertebral bodies of the spine.
Cervical disc herniation can arise due to aberrations of the intervertebral disc such as bulging, rupture, and slipped or extruded disc. It results in neck, shoulder, and arm pain. In some cases, a disc herniation may occur due to injury, repetitive movements, or degenerative disc disease (DDD).
Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer, as it is not a disease as such but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to increasing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics.
The spine is made up of 33 small bones called vertebrae and is known as the spinal column or vertebral column. It can be divided into 5 parts: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx region. The cervical spine is comprised of the first 7 vertebrae, which supports the neck and the head.
Thoracic herniation disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged causing the soft inner material of the nucleus pulposus to rupture out of its space. This condition can be extremely serious if it occurs in the thoracic spine. Thoracic disc herniation is a relatively uncommon condition.
Thoracic myelopathy is a disorder resulting from severe spinal cord compression in the thoracic region. The spinal cord in this region typically gets compressed as a result of bulging or herniated discs, spinal trauma, or bone spurs causing severe pain and discomfort. Thoracic decompression surgery is one of the effective ways to treat thoracic myelopathy.
The backbone is made of small bones arranged from the neck down to the buttocks, one above the other. The region at the chest and lower back are called the thoracic and lumbar spine, respectively. These are the two regions commonly affected by a fracture.
Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate. Degenerative disc disease is not actually a disease but refers to the changes in the spine that occur as a part of the normal aging process.
Back pain is a common condition affecting approximately 80% of the population at some point in their lives. The area usually affected is the lower back (lumbar region) as it bears most of the upper body’s weight. Trauma to the spine, age and overuse can result in deterioration of the vertebral bones and joints or bulging of the discs.
Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) is the latest technology available to perform spinal surgeries through small, less than one-inch-long incisions. It involves the use of special surgical instruments, devices and advanced imaging techniques to visualize and perform the surgery through such small incisions.
A spinal cord stimulator is a device that sends electrical impulses to the areas of the spinal cord causing pain and interferes with the transmission of pain signals to the brain. It blocks the brain's ability to sense pain in the stimulated areas, thus relieving pain without the side effects that medications can cause.
Spinal fusion is the surgical technique of combining two or more vertebrae. A fusion of the vertebrae involves the insertion of secondary bone tissue obtained either from an autograft (tissues from your own body) or allograft (tissues from another person) to enhance the bone healing process.
Spinal decompression is a treatment to relieve pressure on one or many “pinched nerves” in the spinal column. It can be achieved either surgically or by non-surgical methods. Spinal decompression is used to treat conditions that cause chronic backaches such as herniated disc, disc bulge, sciatica, and spinal stenosis.
Neural foramina are small canals at every level of the spine through which nerves leave the spinal cord and go to the limbs and other parts of the body. Narrowing of this canal is called foramina stenosis. The narrowing may be caused by bone spurs, a herniated or bulging disc, arthritis, ligament thickening or enlargement of a joint in the spinal canal.
Scoliosis is the abnormal curvature of the spine giving the spine an “S” or “C” shape. Scoliosis can occur at any age and is more common in girls than boys. Larger curves cause discomfort while the smaller curves do not cause any problems. In most cases, the exact cause remains unknown.
Spinal manipulation is a non-surgical "hands-on" technique in which professional chiropractic specialists use leverage and exercises to adjust spinal structures and restore mobility of the back. During pain, the nerve that is interconnected with the muscles, joints, bone becomes weak and loses its ability to function.
Sacroiliac (SI) joints are joints in the lower back region, where the sacrum and ilium bones join. Although these joints are small and have limited motion, they play an important role in connecting your spine to the pelvic bone and lower part of your body. They perform an important function in absorbing shock from the upper portion of your body.
Many approaches have been introduced in spinal surgery to gain optimal access to the injured or diseased area, with minimal or no damage to surrounding tissues. There are three main approaches – anterior (from the front), posterior (from the back) and lateral (from the side).
The goal of scoliosis surgery is to both reduce the abnormal curve in the spine and to prevent it from progressing further and getting worse. To achieve this, a spinal fusion is performed to fuse the vertebrae within the curve to be corrected. This involves placing bone graft or bone graft substitute in the intervertebral space between the two vertebrae.
Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine. The abnormality can be surgically corrected by fusing the affected parts of the spine so that they grow into a solid bone and do not twist. During the surgery, your doctor makes an incision to expose the spine.
Back pain is common and usually affects everyone at some point. It often occurs more frequently as you grow older. Pain can either be sharp and sudden or dull and constant. Acute back pain lasts a few days or weeks while pain that lasts more than 6 months is considered chronic.
Facet joint cysts, also called synovial cysts, are benign, fluid-filled sacs that develop due to degeneration of the facet joints of the spine. These cysts normally occur in the lumbar spine (lower back) area and may not cause problems, but when large enough, they can cause spinal stenosis or narrowing of the spinal canal leading to compression of the spinal cord or spinal nerves.
Back and neck pain is common symptoms of injury, damage, deformity, or unhealthy spinal conditions. Pain may range from a mild ache to a sharp shooting pain that can spread down your arms and legs. There are many conservative and surgical treatment options that can relieve pain by targeting the symptoms or the underlying problem.
Sacroiliac (SI) joint arthrodesis is a surgical procedure employed for the treatment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction and/or inflammation/pain. The procedure involves surgical immobilization of the SI joint by fusion of the sacrum and ilium bones using instrumentation, bone graft, or both.
A spinal fracture refers to a break in any of the bones that make up the spine. It can occur due to trauma such as a traffic accident, fall from a significant height or weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis or a tumor. The thoracic or lumbar spine (upper and lower back) are the most common locations for spinal fractures.
The spine is made up of bones called vertebrae which surround and protect the spinal cord. These are separated by intervertebral discs which provide cushioning between the vertebral bones. A spinal infection may affect any part of your spine, i.e. the vertebral column, intervertebral discs or the soft tissues surrounding the spine.
The spine is made up of bones called vertebrae which surround and protect the spinal cord. These are separated by intervertebral discs which provide cushioning between the vertebral bones. A spinal infection may affect any part of your spine including the vertebral column, intervertebral discs or the soft tissues surrounding the spine.
The spine is made up of many bones called vertebrae which surround and protect the spinal cord. Intervertebral discs between the vertebral bones provide cushioning. A spinal infection may affect any part of the spine including the vertebral column, intervertebral discs or the soft tissues surrounding the spine.
Complex spine surgery is a type of back surgery involving a fusion of six or more vertebrae. The vertebrae are a series of small interlocking bones extending from the skull to the pelvis (hip) to form your spinal column or backbone. Spinal fusion helps in forming a solid bridge of bone that stabilizes your back.
Acute or chronic injury can cause a spinal disc to herniate or rupture. The damaged disc may compress against the spinal cord or the nerves that branch out through the vertebral bones, leading to pain, loss of sensation and/or motor function in the part of the body supplied by the nerve.
Outpatient spine surgery is an operative procedure that does not require an overnight stay at the hospital. It is also called ambulatory or same-day surgery. Improvement in surgical techniques, modern pain management, and rehabilitation protocols allows surgeons to perform certain operative techniques of the spine (from cervical to lumbar region), with a minimally invasive technique on an outpatient basis.
Imaging techniques such as computed tomography and fluoroscopy may be integrated into the system to facilitate pre-operative planning of the surgery, where a series of images taken before the surgery are displayed on a screen, with which your surgeon matches his/her moves intraoperatively.
The spinal cord passes through the vertebral column, which forms a bony protective cover. However, many conditions can cause parts of the vertebrae to compress the spinal cord or the nerves that branch out through them, leading to pain, loss of sensation and/or motor function in the part of the body supplied by the compressed nerve.
The spine is the backbone of the body. It naturally curves a little. This allows us to walk, move and balance ourselves properly. But some people have a spine that curves too much to one side. This condition is called scoliosis. In most cases, especially in children and adolescents, the cause of scoliosis is unknown and scoliosis is referred to as idiopathic scoliosis.
Surgical treatment is the last resort for chronic backache when other therapies do not relieve the pain. Some surgical procedures can be performed as an out-patient procedure while others may require hospital admission. Surgical treatment is considered when there is damage to the peripheral nerves and the patient is suffering from a progressive neurologic disease.
Spinal decompression therapy involves stretching your spine using a manual or motorized traction table to help ease neck, back, or leg pain. It is a non-surgical technique to relieve pressure on your spinal discs and spinal nerves. Spinal traction is also believed to improve the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrients to the spine to promote healing.
Spondylolisthesis is a condition of the spine characterized by the forward displacement of a vertebra over an underlying vertebra. A significant displacement can cause a compression of the spinal nerves resulting in pain. The two most common types of spondylolisthesis include dysplastic spondylolisthesis and isthmic spondylolisthesis.
Pain is an unpleasant sensation caused by illness or injury. Pain can have a negative impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic pain is the pain that is constant and persists for long periods of time. The treatment options for chronic pain include medications, surgical interventions, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
Epidural blocks contain a strong anti-inflammatory agent called corticosteroid and an anesthetic for pain relief. It is administered into the epidural space of the spine, the space between the outermost covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the wall of the spinal canal.
The epidural cavity is the space surrounding the spinal cord, which extends from the skull to the tailbone, and consists of fat, nerves and blood vessels. Nerves in this space can be blocked by injecting an anesthetic, or a constricted nerve can be relieved of pain and inflammation by injecting a steroid medication into the epidural space.
Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a minimally invasive approach to treat inflammation of spinal nerves that causes pain in the neck, arms, back and legs. This technique may help relieve back pain in conditions such as spinal stenosis, spondylolysis or herniated discs.
The facet joints are the tiny joints situated at the upper and lower part of each vertebra, connecting one vertebra to the other. Each vertebra has four facet joints: a pair that connects to the vertebra above (superior facets) and another pair that connects to the vertebra below (inferior facets). They guide motion and provide stability.
Physical therapy is one of the foremost necessary treatment modes of recovery for back pain. A referral to physiotherapy sometimes is created by your spine surgeon. A physical therapist is a well-trained, skilled health care professional who facilitates improving movement and manages the pain by safe stretching, conditioning, and strengthening exercise techniques.
Costo-vertebral joint injection, also known as a costovertebral block, is performed to alleviate upper back pain caused by damage or injury to the costovertebral joint. The costovertebral joint is located on either side of the vertebrae and connects the heads of the ribs with the vertebral bodies.
In most cases, back pain can be resolved without surgery. The conservative treatment involves the use of pain medications and other methods to reduce inflammation and restore normal function. Usually, some self-care methods and medications can help to overcome back pain, but if pain and inflammation persist over 72 hours, it is necessary to consult your physician.
The spinal column consists of vertebral bones stacked one on top of the other, surrounding and protecting the spinal cord. Soft cartilaginous discs present between the vertebrae support the spine, act as cushions against stress and permit spine mobility.
Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is an operative procedure to relieve compression or pressure on nerve roots and/or the spinal cord due to a herniated disc or bone spur in the neck. The vertebra is approached from the from (anterior) of your neck.
A cervical laminoplasty is an operative procedure that involves reshaping/repositioning the bone at the neck region (cervical spine) to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerves. It can also be performed to relieve the symptoms of the narrowed spinal canal known as spinal stenosis.
A cervical discectomy or decompressive spinal procedure is an operative procedure that relieves pressure on the spinal nerves and/or spinal cord by partially or completely removing the intervertebral disc that is herniated and/or bony material (bone spur). Cervical discectomy can be performed using a minimally invasive approach if you are suitable.
Your spine consists of 24 bones called vertebrae that are arranged one above the other and separated by intervertebral discs which act as shock absorbers during activity. Your neck or cervical area is made up of seven of these vertebrae. The intervertebral discs consist of 2 parts, namely annulus fibrosus (outer flexible ring) and nucleus pulposus (central soft jelly-like region).
Cervical laminectomy is a surgical procedure in which the spinal canal is made larger by removing the spinous process and the lamina in the cervical region of the spine. This reduces neck pain and relieves the pressure on the spinal cord caused by the degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs in the cervical region.
Posterior cervical decompression is a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck to relieve pressure over compressed nerves in the cervical spine region caused by inflamed spinal tissue or nerves, by removing portions of the cervical vertebrae.
Posterior cervical foraminotomy is a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck to relieve symptoms of a pinched or compressed spinal nerve by enlarging the neural foramen, an opening for the nerve roots to exit the spine and travel through the body, and creating more space for the spinal nerve to pass through.
Posterior cervical fusion (PCF), a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck, involves joining or fusing two or more damaged cervical vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae is also known as arthrodesis. Sometimes, metallic plates may be used for fixing the vertebrae, this is also known as instrumentation.
Back pain is a common condition affecting approximately 80% of the population at some point in their lives. The area usually affected is the lower back (lumbar region) as it bears most of the upper body’s weight. Trauma to the spine, age and overuse can result in deterioration of the vertebral bones and joints or bulging of the discs.
Lumbar laminectomy is a spinal surgery to relieve excess pressure on the spinal cord or nerves within the spinal canal in the lumbar or lower back region. The pressure may be caused by bony overgrowths, herniated discs, injury, tumors, or narrowing of the spinal canal resulting in painful symptoms affecting a person’s ability to perform normal day to day activities.
Facetectomy and foraminotomy are the most common spinal surgical procedures recommended for chronic pain due to spinal nerve compression. Lumbar foraminotomy is a decompression surgery involving the removal of bone and tissue obstructing the neuroforamen to release the pressure on the spinal nerve roots.
Microdiscectomy is a surgical procedure employed to relieve the pressure over the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, caused by a ruptured (herniated) intervertebral disc. A herniated disc, common in the lower back (lumbar spine) occurs when the inner gelatinous substance of the disc escapes through a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosis).
Lumbar discectomy is a spinal surgery that involves the removal of the damaged intervertebral disc(s) to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves (decompression) in the lumbar (lower back) region, which forms the lower portion of the spine and comprises of five vertebrae (L1-L5). A minimally invasive technique is implemented to perform the surgery.
Spinal surgery can be performed by two different approaches; one is the conventional open surgical approach and the other is the advanced minimally invasive approach. Each approach has its own advantages and preferences. However, the minimally invasive technique is a more advanced approach with a higher success rate and a minimal level of patient discomfort.
Radiofrequency ablation for lumbar spondylosis is a minimally invasive surgical procedure performed to treat lower back pain secondary to lumbar spondylosis. The procedure employs radiofrequency waves to produce heat which damages the nerves transmitting pain signals to the brain in the lumbar spine.
Lumbar interbody fusion can be performed through different approaches. Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) is a minimally invasive approach to LIF, where an incision is made on your side to avoid damaging important muscles and ligaments in your back.
A minimally invasive lumbar fusion technique is used to treat fractured vertebra, lumbar instability, spine deformities – scoliosis or kyphosis, cervical disc hernias, tumors, back pain, and failed back syndrome. Spondylolisthesis, a painful condition of the spine caused by disc displacement or slipped disc, can be treated with minimally invasive lumbar fusion technique.
The back is made up of a number of small bones called vertebrae. Cushioning discs present between the vertebrae act as shock absorbers. The vertebral column allows the cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers called the spinal cord to pass through the entire column length and branch out to the various parts of the body.
Spinal fusion is a surgical technique that joins two or more vertebrae in the spine to minimize the pain caused by the movement of these vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae in the lumbar portion of the spine is called lumbar fusion. This surgery can be performed as an open or minimally invasive procedure.
Lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) surgery is a surgical technique that involves the removal of a damaged intervertebral disc and the insertion of a bone graft into the disc space created between the two adjoining vertebrae. Bone grafts promote healing and facilitate fusion. Screws and rods are used to stabilize the spine during the healing process.
A medial branch block is a procedure in which a mixture of a local anesthetic with or without a corticosteroid is injected near the medial branch nerves supplying a facet joint. A lumbar medial branch block prevents the transmission of pain signals from the lower back.
In-office lumbar injections are steroid shots administered to you in your physician’s clinical or office setting to relieve low back pain. These shots involve injecting a local anesthetic and an anti-inflammatory steroid into the lumbar (lower back) area of your spine.
The human spine provides support to the body allowing you to stand upright, bend, and twist. The spine can be broadly divided into the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. The thoracic spine lies in the mid-back region between the neck and lower back and is protected by the rib cage.
The vertebral column supports the back and protects the spinal cord that runs through it. The nerves that branch out from the spinal cord are also protected and pass through special passages created by each vertebral bone. However, degeneration or herniation (bulging out) of the intervertebral disc that cushions each vertebral bone, injury, bony outgrowths due to arthritis or tumors can compress the spinal cord and nerves, causing debilitating back pain and disability.
The spinal cord passes through the vertebral column, which forms a bony protective cover. However, a spinal tumor can compress the spinal cord or spinal nerves, leading to pain, loss of sensation, and/or motor function in the part of the body supplied by the compressed nerve.
Thoracic spine decompression is a procedure to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves in the middle portion of the back. Spine decompression surgery is indicated in treating spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal caused by degeneration of the facet joints and the thickening of the ligaments.
Spinal fractures occur most commonly in the thoracic (upper back) and lumbar (lower back) regions, and at the thoracolumbar junction. Fractures in these regions can occur due to injury from falls, motor vehicle accidents, violent acts and sports accidents, and also from the degeneration of bones due to old age and disease (osteoporosis and tumors).
Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease characterized by weakening of bones, making them more susceptible to fractures (vertebral compression fractures), typically in the hip and spine. Vertebral compression fractures can also occur with a metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and vertebral hemangioma.
The spine is a complex 3- dimensional structure that is interspersed with a complex lattice of delicate blood vessels and nerves. Trauma to these structures during surgery is a big concern in spinal surgery. The complexity and increased need for precision in thoracic spine surgeries have led to the introduction of computers to assist in many spinal procedures.
Dysfunction of the spine can be severely debilitating to one’s ability to perform activities at both home and work. Pain in the lumbar spine (lower back) is the number one reason for missed days of work, followed by the pain of the cervical spine (neck).
When lifting objects, try to bend at the knees instead of the waist and let your legs do the lifting, not your back. Keep the object close to your body. Know your limits and get help if you feel it is too heavy. The way you sleep can also affect the health of your back. Use a firm mattress, check for wear-and-tear, and change it regularly.
The spine is composed of spinal bones called vertebrae, intervertebral discs, connective tissue, and muscles. All of these structures provide support, stability, and mobility to the upper body. The spine also protects the delicate spinal cord. Injury or disease to any of these structures can cause pain.
The duration of hospitalization depends on the treatment rendered. The period of your rest or inactivity depends on a few factors such as the type of surgical procedure and the approach used to access your hip, the size of the incision and presence of any complications.
The most serious complication of a herniated disc that may occur before surgery is the development of the cauda equine syndrome. It occurs when a large particle of disc material ruptures in the spinal canal. It occurs in the area where the nerves that control the bowels and bladder travel before they leave the spine.
The spine also called the back bone, plays a vital role in stability, smooth movement and protection of the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebra with fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs between them. The vertebra and discs form the spinal column from the head to the pelvis, giving symmetry and support to the body.